Brazilian Coffee: Why is it Scorned Among Coffee Geeks?
Just think of Frank Sinatra’s iconic coffee song from 1946:
“Way down among Brazilians,
Coffee beans grow by the billions,
So they’ve got to find those extra cups to fill.
They’ve got an awful lot of coffee in Brazil.”
In more than 100 years Brazil has been the world’s leading producer of coffee beans.
However, quantity and quality are two entirely different things, and if you mention Brazil to a real coffee snob, he’ll probably roll his eyes and give you the condescending hipster smirk.
Brazil is a contentious coffee country. In this article, I’ll take a close look at the good, bad and ugly and tell you everything you need to know about Brazilian coffee.
the coffee chronicler
It’s natural processed so the delicate chocolate flavor will work very well as a pour over.
It’s roasted by one of the top coffee brands of New York.
Grown at the Mantiqueira Mountains in the famous coffee state of Minas Gerais.
Brazilian coffee history starts with a romance. In 1727 Sergeant Major Francisco de Melo Palheta went to Cayenne in French Guiana to help negotiate in a land dispute.
But instead of doing diplomatic work, he seduced the wife of the local mayor. She gave him a coffee seedling hidden in a bouquet on his departure, and that’s how coffee came to Brazil.
Palheta brought the plant with him back to the Northern Brazilian state of Para, but it wasn’t until the plant made it down South close to Rio de Janeiro and Santos (the harbor town of Sao Paulo) that it started to thrive.
In 1830, around a hundred years after its introduction, Brazilian coffee had become a success story and was responsible for a third of the global production.
From slavery to Industrial Boom
Due to slave labor and an aggressive, industrial approach to farming, the production increased rapidly, and Brazil became the largest coffee exporter in the world.
In 1888 slavery was abolished in Brazil. It was feared that this would lead to a decrease in coffee production. However, the opposite happened thanks to government involvement and increased immigration.
The coffee production in Brazil continued, and in the early 1900s, there was Brazilian coffee in four out of five cups consumed worldwide. (Source)
What happened in Brazil had a significant effect on not only the global coffee trade but also on the evolution of coffee consumption.
The cause and effect also went the other way; coffee production has shaped the Brazilian landscape, agriculture, and society as a whole.
Brazil Coffee Flavor (and lack thereof)
From the get-go, Brazilian coffee was all about scale. Grow a bunch of coffee and harvest it efficiently.
This is typical traits of the coffee production:
- Low altitudes: Increases speed of maturation and makes it easy for pickers to access
- No shade: Gives more sun, which translates to cherries that are ripe faster
- Monoculture farms: The lack of biodiversity makes it easy to harvest but destroys the natural environment for animals and plants.
- Brazil is one of the only places in the world where tractors are used for the harvest. Because of this crude picking, ripe and unripe cherries get mixed.
All these things combined make Brazilian coffee slightly underwhelming seen from a coffee lover’s point of view.
Another thing that is unique to Brazilian coffee is the processing method: the pulped natural method.
In other parts of the world, coffee is typically either wet or dry processed. These methods tend to create more exciting flavor profiles: either very clean and acidic or extremely fruity and fermented.
The pulped natural method (or honey process as its referred to in other countries) lets the coffee seed dry with the mucilage still on the bean. This enhances sweetness, which does make up for some of the other drawbacks in the production line.
From espresso blends to specialty
Typically, beans from Brazil have flavor notes such as chocolate, hazelnut, and caramel. It’s good without being exciting, as opposed to the more subtle coffees from East Africa or Central America.
However, this kind of coffee has given birth to the Italian espresso culture and much of modern coffee.
Since the majority of coffee available back in the postwar world was this cheap Brazilian stuff; naturally, the baristas adapted and tried to make the most of it.
When you make espresso, all flavors are compressed and intensified. For that reason, a sweet and nutty Brazilian, that would taste rather boring as a filter coffee, can perform well in an espresso blend.
Robusta is simpler to take care of compared to arabica, and Brazil also grows large quantities of both types. It also has more caffeine and crema while being cheaper than arabica, which made it an ideal partner in an espresso blend.A typical Italian espresso blend would be something like 70 % Brazilian pulped natural, 15 % robusta, and finally a dash of Central American coffee to add some spice to the blend.
It tastes decent as espresso and works great as the base of a cappuccino. But today most coffee snobs have higher aspirations.
coffee production in Brazil today
When the specialty coffee movement started to get momentum at the beginning of this millennium, much of the emphasis was on unique flavor notes as well as acidity.
Since Brazilian coffee is rarely grown at high altitudes or processed in a way that promotes these attributes, it has been pretty rare to encounter single origin coffee intended for manual brewing. In recent years, Brazilian coffee has remained a cheaper ingredient for espresso or been a filler in bland supermarket blends.
However, Brazil is a vast country with an advanced coffee industry, so obviously, there are exceptions to this rule. The 2018 Brewers Cup champion, Emi Fukahori, finished number one using a bean from the distinguished Brazilian coffee farm, Daterra.
This is what the famous English barista and coffee roaster Maxwell Colonna-Dashwood noted about his visit at Daterra:
“During my visit to the Daterra farm in the Cerrado region, not only was I very well looked after but I was blown away by the technology the farm had and the ability of that technology to improve the quality of sorting and processing. The owners had a bespoke sorting system that separated the cherries by ripeness based on pressure and LED sorters that scanned thousands of beans per second.” (source)
Brazil has become more affluent in recent years. Combined with the technological know-how, the 6th largest population in the world, as well as a considerable domestic coffee culture, I think it’s safe to say that we will see a new generation of quality-focused and proud Brazilian coffee farmers in the coming years.
Growing regions and Brazil coffee exports
Historically, much Brazilian coffee has been sold under the ‘Santos‘ name. However, this doesn’t say anything about quality; it’s just the name of the harbor town near Sao Paulo.
Usually, the high-quality stuff will have the name of the farm (called Fazenda) mentioned on the package.
However, because Brazilian farms tend to be enormous, the same farm will produce both good and bad stuff.
As an example, some of the more boring bags of coffee I have encountered have been from the abovementioned Daterra farm.
The typical varieties of arabica are
- Mundo Novo
Coffee is grown in the Eastern part of the country; from Bahia in the north; all the way to Parana in the South. The most famous area is perhaps the state Minas Gerais and its Cerrado-region where the altitude averages around 800-1300 meters and the seasons are clearly defined. Around half of the total coffee, production hails from this state.
Espírito Santo is the second-most prominent state, but robusta (often called conilon) accounts for a significant part of the production here.
Yes, there is a lot to say about Brazilian coffee. But at the end of the day, Ol’ Blue Eyes said it pretty well in his song from the forties: There’s an awful lot of coffee in Brazil!